Cross-characterization methods to obtain an “absolute” quantification of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 in-depth and at the surface
Solene Bechu1,2, Muriel Bouttemy2, Anais Loubat2, Jackie Vigneron2, Damien Aureau2, Mathieu Fregnaux2, Bertrand Theys3, Francois Jomard4, Sofia Gaiaschi5, Jocelyne Marciano5, Patrick Chapon5, Arnaud Etcheberry2
1IPVF, Palaiseau, France
/2ILV, Versailles, France
/3CNRS-IPVF, Palaiseau, France
/4GEMAC, Versailles, France
/5Horiba Scientific, Palaiseau, France

To improve the efficiencies of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, a perfect knowledge of the absorber composition is an absolute necessity. In order to, we performed, either in-depth or at the surface, a coupling of cross-characterization methods including among others, XPS, SIMS and Nano-Auger. We present here the comparisons of quantitative results determined using each characterization technique, with a specific focus on key composition parameters: GGI (([Ga]/([Ga]+[In])) and CGI ([Cu]/([Ga]+[In])) ratios. With this multi-technique approach, a multiscale determination of those ratios has been obtained, from micrometer to nanometer dimensions.