|Critical Review of Perovskite Photovoltaics Life Cycle Environmental Impacts|
|Enrica Lecissi& Vasilis Fthenakis
Columbia University, New York, NY, United States
This paper investigates the present status and future prospects of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite photovoltaics in terms of potential life-cycle environmental impacts. The last years have seen a remarkable progress in terms of efficiency and stability of peroskite solar cells (PSC). The record single-junction perovskite power conversion efficiency achieved in laboratory in 2018 is 23.7%. In the same year, a monolithic perovkite/silicon tandem solar cell with a certified 28.0% efficiency at laboratory scale was announced, outperforming both perovskite and silicon single-junction solar cells. However, great challenges remain in scaling up devices from laboratory scale to large-area solar cells and modules, while addressing device stability and longevity under actual operational conditions. From an environmental perspective the main challenges for large-scale perovskite PV are to ensure resource availability and minimize life-cycle environmental impacts. In this paper we critically review the most promising materials and device configurations for scaling up PSCs, while minimizing environmental and energy footprints. We compare single junction and tandem configurations in terms of the prospective energy and environmental life-cycle impacts while assessing the scalability of associated manufacturing processes.