PV Power Industry in USA, China and India and Global Energy Sustainability  
Mingcan Chen1, Aoxia (Kevin) Chen1, Yaswanth Nag Velaga1, Anamika Dubey2, Pankaj (PK) K Sen1
1Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, United States
/2Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States

With the steady growth of world population expected to be about 10 billion by 2050, finite fossil fuel reserves, growing concern about climate change and carbon emission, improving the quality of human life for the developing nations, the world is experiencing a rapid growth in renewable energy usage, especially on-shore wind (wind) and solar photovoltaic (PV). The United States of America (USA) and the People Republic of China (China) are the two most energy consuming countries in the world. Collectively they use more than 40% of the total primary energy used globally. On the other hand, India and China combined has more than a third (36%) of the world population. 2018 population numbers are close: India with 1.34billion and China with 1.39billion, compared to the world’s population of about 7.66billion.  USA population on the other hand is only about 326 million. USA and China have a similar land area, and they consume huge energy. They are both making best effort to diversify, and increase the renewable energy portfolio and are leading the global renewable energy industry.  India on the other hand is lagging far behind China, which has a land mass of about 1/3rd of China and is considered to be a sleeping giant. These three countries create an interesting dynamic in different ways for the global energy supply chain and energy sustainability. This paper provides a status report on the global PV energy development and a direct comparison between China, India (the two most populated countries) and USA. It also examines the major challenges for the future global development of renewable energy and the energy sustainability.