|Environmental and Economic Considerations for PV Module End-of-Life Management|
|Cara Libby& Stephanie Shaw
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA, United States
With an expected surge in photovoltaic (PV) module waste volumes in the coming decades, best practices must be established for responsible PV end-of-life management, including project decommissioning and module collection, reuse, recycling, and disposal. The paper introduces key factors that may influence asset management decisions and module recycling and disposal practices, including performance, module composition and construction, policy and regulation, emerging recycling technologies, and environmental and economic considerations. The current state of knowledge is presented, based on recent EPRI studies and information collected from module recyclers, waste management companies, landfill operators, and utility and PV industry practitioners.