Addressing Safety Issues in Development of Quantum Dot Incorporated EVA Lamination of Photovoltaic Devices
Jacob A.L. Brunning, Bahareh Sadeghimmaki, Roohollah S. Tarighat, Yaxin Zheng, Siva Sivoththaman
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada

Many types of nanoparticles have transitioned from research labs and into the marketplace, necessitating large-scale nanoparticle production and integration in many fields such as power generation, display technologies, sports equipment and medicine. Due the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles and their ease of aerosolization, even for non-toxic nanomaterials such as Si, health and exposure risks are more pronounced; safety is paramount when working with nanomaterials. Aerosolized quantum dots (QDs) and other nanoparticles represent a significant safety hazard in the development of large-scale manufacturing which utilize these nanomaterials. The safety concerns posed by nanoparticle exposure can even limit work at the research scale. QDs, which can be composed of a variety of semiconductor materials, are typically in the 1-10nm size range. Material selection is an important aspect of safety risks as many common QDs have highly toxic Cd or Pb based structures that magnify safety risks. In this work, the integration of QDs into photovoltaic (PV) devices during module lamination is demonstrate. In which a QD film is deposited on to the solar glass and laminated in contact with ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). Safe handling methods for QD EVA lamination in a research environment is presented.  We present safe handling methods for QD EVA lamination in a research environment. This work underlines the need for safety considerations in QD embedded solar cell processing and proposes a pathway to safely scale-up the process during the R&D phase, allowing this technology to move closer to industrialization. This work will allow industry to make informed decisions with regards to the safety aspects of high-volume QD material processing in large-scale manufacturing of QD LDS technology.

Area: Sub-Area 1.2: Quantum-well, Wire, and Dot-Architectured Devices