|Assessing Variability in Toxicity Testing of PV Modules|
|Adit Patankar& GovindaSamy TamizhMani
Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, United States
Abstract — This is a continuation of our previous research work published at the IEEE PVSC 2018. In the previous work, we reported the toxicity testing variability for four mechanical sample removal approaches namely coring, cell cut, strip cut and hybrid approaches. Our previous results showed a considerable variability in toxicity testing results=for lead in the module, which was likely due to the large observed variability due to different mechanical sample removal approaches. In the present work, a waterjet cutting approach was attempted for sample removal. First attempts were made to cut circular pieces of size 9.5 mm in diameter. However, a simpler and less expensive approach was implemented later to cut square and rectangular shaped pieces for sampling. Twenty-four samples were generated from six PV modules (two each from three different manufacturers). They were tested with the TCLP method by two different independent laboratories. The variability in the TCLP test results has been significantly reduced from the original sampling methods.